License Image The pelvis or "basin" is composed of four bones: the two hip bones, the sacrum and the coccyx. The bowl like pelvis with it’s concave iliac fossa, and pelvic floor muscles, helps to support the internal organs of the abdomen. The pelvis also acts as a solid foundation for the attachment of the […]
License Image The sacrum is a large curved triangular bone situated like a wedge between the two hip bones. It is formed by the five fused sacral vertebrae. The transverse ridges represent the intervertebral discs of the immature sacrum which have become ossified and fused. The base of the sacrum articulates with the body of […]
License Image The sacroiliac joint is the synovial joint between the ilium of the hip bone, and the sacrum. These interconnecting bones fit snugly together, allowing very little movement, and supporting the weight bearing function of the pelvis. In advanced age the cavity between the bones may disappear altogether, becoming fibrous or the bones fused. […]
License Image The sacrum is connected to the ischium of the hip bone by the sacrotuberous and sacrospinous ligaments. The posterior sacroiliac ligament blends with the fibers of the sacrotuberous ligament which attaches from the sacrum to the ischial tuberosity.
License Image Ligaments of the posterior hip bone and and sacrum. Both the interosseus sacroiliac ligament and the posterior sacroiliac ligaments support the sacroiliac joint. The posterior sacroiliac ligament blends with the fibers of the sacrotuberous ligament which attaches from the sacrum to the ischial tuberosity.
License Image The obturator internus arises from the inner surface of the pelvis where it partially covers the obturator foramen. The muscle fibers converge into a tendinous band which lies between the ischial spine and ischial tuberosity, and makes a sharp turn around the ischial bone as it heads towards it’s insertion on the greater […]
License Image The piriformis is a flat triangular shaped muscle that originates inside the pelvis and passes through the sciatic foramen on it’s way to insertion on the greater trochanter of the femur. The superior gemellus lies parallel to the obturator internus tendon, and it’s tendon blends with that of the obturator as it inserts […]
License Image This group of outer hip muscles includes the piriformis, superior gemellus, inferior gemellus, obturator internus and obturator externus. With their insertions on or near the greater trochanter of the femur, these muscles rotate the thigh laterally.
License Image Pelvic Floor Muscles The muscles of the "pelvic floor" or "pelvic diaphragm" are the levator ani, and the coccygeus. The levator ani is divided into two parts: the pubococcygeus and the iliococcygeus. Kegel exercises are designed to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor, primarily the pubococcygeus muscle. These exercises are usually done […]
License Image The clavicle and scapula form the shoulder girdle. This acts as the bony framework by which the muscles of the chest, upper back and shoulder connect the upper limb to the trunk of the body and control it’s movements.The clavicle connects to the sternum via the sternoclavicular joint and to the scapula by […]
License Image The deltoid, teres major, teres minor, infraspinatus, supraspinatus (not shown) and subscapularis muscles (not shown) all extend from the scapula to the humerus and act on the shoulder joint. The trapezius and latissimus dorsi muscles connect the upper limb to the vertebral column. Both the deltoid and the trapezius are firmly attached to […]
License Image The trapezius, rhomboid and levator muscles of the shoulder.
License Image The deltoid muscle of the shoulder as seen from the front.
License Image The latissimus dorsi muscle of the back.
License Image The joint cavity is surrounded by a loose fitting fibrous articular capsule. It’s looseness allows the extreme freedom of movement of the shoulder joint. The capsule is strengthened by the tendons and ligaments surrounding and blending with it. The coracohumeral, glenohumeral ligaments and the tendons of the supraspinatus and subscapularis muscles all serve […]
License Image The clavicle as viewed from above. The clavicle joins the acromion of the scapula at the acromioclavicular joint. The clavicle joins the sternum at the sternoclavicular joint. The clavicle is the most frequently broken bone in the body.
License Image The shoulder joint ligaments shown are the acromioclavicular ligament, coracoacromial ligament, coracohumeral ligament, coracoclavicular ligament, and the articular capsule or glenohumeral ligaments. Boney structures shown are the Coracoid process of the scapula, the clavicle and the humerus.
License Image The shoulder joint ligaments shown are the acromioclavicular ligament, coracoclavicular ligament, the superior transverse scapular ligament and the joint capsule or glenohumeral ligaments. Boney structures shown are the acromion of the scapula, the clavicle and the humerus.